Reference documentation for deal.II version Git b33e53217d 2019-05-21 07:35:10 -0400
\(\newcommand{\dealcoloneq}{\mathrel{\vcenter{:}}=}\)
Public Member Functions | Private Types | Private Attributes | List of all members
ColorEnriched::Helper< dim, spacedim > Struct Template Reference

#include <deal.II/fe/fe_enriched.h>

Public Member Functions

 Helper (const FiniteElement< dim, spacedim > &fe_base, const FiniteElement< dim, spacedim > &fe_enriched, const std::vector< predicate_function< dim, spacedim >> &predicates, const std::vector< std::shared_ptr< Function< spacedim >>> &enrichments)
 
const hp::FECollection< dim, spacedim > & build_fe_collection (hp::DoFHandler< dim, spacedim > &dof_handler)
 

Private Types

using cell_iterator_function = std::function< const Function< spacedim > *(const typename Triangulation< dim, spacedim >::cell_iterator &)>
 

Private Attributes

hp::FECollection< dim, spacedim > fe_collection
 
const FiniteElement< dim, spacedim > & fe_base
 
const FiniteElement< dim, spacedim > & fe_enriched
 
const FE_Nothing< dim, spacedim > fe_nothing
 
const std::vector< predicate_function< dim, spacedim > > predicates
 
const std::vector< std::shared_ptr< Function< spacedim > > > enrichments
 
std::vector< cell_iterator_functioncolor_enrichments
 
std::vector< unsigned int > predicate_colors
 
unsigned int n_colors
 
std::map< unsigned int, std::map< unsigned int, unsigned int > > cellwise_color_predicate_map
 
std::vector< std::set< unsigned int > > fe_sets
 

Detailed Description

template<int dim, int spacedim = dim>
struct ColorEnriched::Helper< dim, spacedim >

ColorEnriched::Helper class creates a collection of FE_Enriched finite elements (hp::FECollection) to be used with hp::DoFHandler in a domain with multiple, possibly overlapping, sub-domains with individual enrichment functions. Note that the overlapping regions may have multiple enrichment functions associated with them. This is implemented using a general constructor of FE_Enriched object which allows different enrichment functions.

Consider a domain with multiple enriched sub-domains which are disjoint i.e. not connected with each other. To ensure \(C^0\) continuity at the interface between the enriched sub-domain (characterized by a single enrichment function) and the non-enriched domain, we can use an FE_Enriched object in the enriched sub-domain and in the non-enriched domain a standard finite element (eg: FE_Q) wrapped into an FE_Enriched object (which internally uses a dominating FE_Nothing object). Refer to the documentation on FE_Enriched for more information on this. It is to be noted that an FE_Enriched object is constructed using a base FE (FiniteElement objects) and one or more enriched FEs. FE_Nothing is a dummy enriched FE.

The situation becomes more complicated when two enriched sub-domains share an interface. When the number of enrichment functions are same for the sub-domains, FE_Enriched object of one sub-domain is constructed such that each enriched FE is paired (figuratively) with a FE_Nothing in the FE_Enriched object of the other sub-domain. For example, let the FEs fe_enr1 and fe_enr2, which will be used with enrichment functions, correspond to the two sub-domains. Then the FE_Enriched objects of the two sub-domains are built using [fe_base, fe_enr1, fe_nothing] and [fe_base, fe_nothing, fe_enr2] respectively. Note that the size of the vector of enriched FEs (used in FE_Enriched constructor) is equal to 2, the same as the number of enrichment functions. When the number of enrichment functions is not the same, additional enriched FEs are paired with FE_Nothing. This ensures that the enriched DOF's at the interface are set to zero by the DoFTools::make_hanging_node_constraints() function. Using these two strategies, we construct the appropriate FE_Enriched using the general constructor. Note that this is done on a mesh without hanging nodes.

Now consider a domain with multiple sub-domains which may share an interface with each other. As discussed previously, the number of enriched FEs in the FE_Enriched object of each sub-domain needs to be equal to the number of sub-domains. This is because we are not using the information of how the domains are connected and any sub-domain may share interface with any other sub-domain (not considering overlaps for now!). However, in general, a given sub-domain shares an interface only with a few sub-domains. This warrants the use of a graph coloring algorithm to reduce the size of the vector of enriched FEs (used in the FE_Enriched constructor). By giving the sub-domains that share no interface the same color, a single 'std::function' that returns different enrichment functions for each sub-domain can be constructed. Then the size of the vector of enriched FEs is equal to the number of different colors used for predicates (or sub-domains).

Note
The graph coloring function, SparsityTools::color_sparsity_pattern, used for assigning colors to the sub-domains needs MPI (use Utilities::MPI::MPI_InitFinalize to initialize MPI and the necessary Zoltan setup). The coloring function, based on Zoltan, is a parallel coloring algorithm but is used in serial by SparsityTools::color_sparsity_pattern.

Construction of the Helper class needs a base FiniteElement fe_base, an enriched FiniteElement fe_enriched (used for all the enrichment functions), a vector of predicate functions (used to define sub-domains) as well as the corresponding enrichment functions. The FECollection object, a collection of FE_Enriched objects to be used with an hp::DoFHandler object, can be retrieved using the member function build_fe_collection which also modifies the active FE indices of the hp::DoFHandler object (provided as an argument to the build_fe_collection function).

Simple example

Consider a domain with three sub-domains defined by predicate functions. Different cells are associated with FE indices as shown in the following image. The three equal-sized square-shaped sub-domains 'a', 'b' and 'c' can be seen. The predicates associated with these sub-domains are also labeled 'a', 'b' and 'c'. The subdomains 'a' and 'b' intersect with cell labeled with FE index 3. The cells in 'c' are labeled with FE index 1. As can be seen, connections exist between 'a' and 'b', 'b' and 'c' but 'a' and 'c' are not connected.

3source_fe_indices.png
Active FE indices

As discussed before, the colors of predicates are allotted using the graph coloring algorithm. Each predicate is a node in the graph and if two sub-domains share an interface, the corresponding predicates should be given different colors. (The predicate colors are different from what is shown in the image. The colors in the image are as per FE indices). Predicates 'a' and 'c' can be given the same color since they are not connected but the color given to 'b' has to be different from 'a' and 'c'.

The name of finite element at an index (i) of fe_collection (hp::FECollection) can be obtained by fe_collection[index].get_name() and is show in the table below. Note that all the FE_Enriched elements are of the same size and FE_Nothing<2>(dominating) is used as discussed before.

Active FE index FiniteElement name
0 FE_Enriched<2>[FE_Q<2>(2)-FE_Nothing<2>(dominating)-FE_Nothing<2>(dominating)]
1 FE_Enriched<2>[FE_Q<2>(2)-FE_Q<2>(1)-FE_Nothing<2>(dominating)]
2 FE_Enriched<2>[FE_Q<2>(2)-FE_Q<2>(1)-FE_Q<2>(1)]
3 FE_Enriched<2>[FE_Q<2>(2)-FE_Nothing<2>(dominating)-FE_Q<2>(1)]

The internal data members used by this class need to be available when the problem is solved. This can be ensured by declaring the object static, which is deallocated only when the program terminates. An alternative would be to use it as a data member of the containing class. Since vector of predicates and enrichment functions may not be available while constructing the Helper, a 'std::shared_ptr' to Helper object can be used and constructed when the predicates and enrichment functions are available.

Warning
The current implementation relies on assigning each cell a material id, which shall not be modified after the setup and h-adaptive refinement. For a given cell, the material id is used to define color predicate map, which doesn't change with refinement.

Example usage:

std::vector< predicate_function<dim> > predicates;
std::vector< std::shared_ptr<Function<dim>> > enrichments;
Triangulation<dim> triangulation;
hp::DoFHandler<dim> dof_handler(triangulation);
predicates,
enrichments);
fe_collection(FE_helper.build_fe_collection(dof_handler));
Authors
Nivesh Dommaraju, Denis Davydov, 2018

Definition at line 1098 of file fe_enriched.h.

Member Typedef Documentation

◆ cell_iterator_function

template<int dim, int spacedim = dim>
using ColorEnriched::Helper< dim, spacedim >::cell_iterator_function = std::function<const Function<spacedim> *( const typename Triangulation<dim, spacedim>::cell_iterator &)>
private

An alias template for any callable target such as functions, lambda expressions, function objects that take a Triangulation<dim,spacedim>::cell_iterator and return a pointer to Function<dim>. This is used to define Helper<dim,spacedim>::color_enrichments which returns an enrichment function for a cell in Triangulation<dim,spacedim>.

Definition at line 1177 of file fe_enriched.h.

Constructor & Destructor Documentation

◆ Helper()

template<int dim, int spacedim>
ColorEnriched::Helper< dim, spacedim >::Helper ( const FiniteElement< dim, spacedim > &  fe_base,
const FiniteElement< dim, spacedim > &  fe_enriched,
const std::vector< predicate_function< dim, spacedim >> &  predicates,
const std::vector< std::shared_ptr< Function< spacedim >>> &  enrichments 
)

Constructor for Helper class.

Parameters
fe_baseA base FiniteElement
fe_enrichedAn enriched FiniteElement
predicatesstd::vector of predicates defining the sub-domains. predicates[i] returns true for a cell if it belongs to a sub-domain with index (i).
enrichmentsstd::vector of enrichment functions

Definition at line 1459 of file fe_enriched.cc.

Member Function Documentation

◆ build_fe_collection()

template<int dim, int spacedim>
const hp::FECollection< dim, spacedim > & ColorEnriched::Helper< dim, spacedim >::build_fe_collection ( hp::DoFHandler< dim, spacedim > &  dof_handler)

Prepares an hp::DoFHandler object. The active FE indices of mesh cells are initialized to work with ColorEnriched::Helper<dim,spacedim>::fe_collection.

Parameters
dof_handleran hp::DoFHandler object
Returns
hp::FECollection, a collection of finite elements needed by dof_handler.

Definition at line 1481 of file fe_enriched.cc.

Member Data Documentation

◆ fe_collection

template<int dim, int spacedim = dim>
hp::FECollection<dim, spacedim> ColorEnriched::Helper< dim, spacedim >::fe_collection
private

Contains a collection of FiniteElement objects needed by an hp::DoFHandler object.

Definition at line 1132 of file fe_enriched.h.

◆ fe_base

template<int dim, int spacedim = dim>
const FiniteElement<dim, spacedim>& ColorEnriched::Helper< dim, spacedim >::fe_base
private

A base FiniteElement used for constructing FE_Enriched object required by ColorEnriched::Helper<dim,spacedim>::fe_collection.

Definition at line 1138 of file fe_enriched.h.

◆ fe_enriched

template<int dim, int spacedim = dim>
const FiniteElement<dim, spacedim>& ColorEnriched::Helper< dim, spacedim >::fe_enriched
private

An enriched FiniteElement used for constructing FE_Enriched object required by ColorEnriched::Helper<dim,spacedim>::fe_collection.

Definition at line 1144 of file fe_enriched.h.

◆ fe_nothing

template<int dim, int spacedim = dim>
const FE_Nothing<dim, spacedim> ColorEnriched::Helper< dim, spacedim >::fe_nothing
private

A finite element with zero degrees of freedom used for constructing FE_Enriched object required by ColorEnriched::Helper<dim,spacedim>::fe_collection

Definition at line 1151 of file fe_enriched.h.

◆ predicates

template<int dim, int spacedim = dim>
const std::vector<predicate_function<dim, spacedim> > ColorEnriched::Helper< dim, spacedim >::predicates
private

std::vector of predicates defining the sub-domains. predicates[i] returns true for a cell if it belongs to a sub-domain with index (i).

Definition at line 1158 of file fe_enriched.h.

◆ enrichments

template<int dim, int spacedim = dim>
const std::vector<std::shared_ptr<Function<spacedim> > > ColorEnriched::Helper< dim, spacedim >::enrichments
private

std::vector of enrichment functions corresponding to the predicates. These are needed while constructing ColorEnriched::Helper<dim,spacedim>::fe_collection.

Definition at line 1165 of file fe_enriched.h.

◆ color_enrichments

template<int dim, int spacedim = dim>
std::vector<cell_iterator_function> ColorEnriched::Helper< dim, spacedim >::color_enrichments
private

std::vector of functions that take in a cell and return a function pointer. These are needed while constructing fe_collection.

color_enrichments[i](cell_iterator) returns a pointer to the correct enrichment function (i.e. whose corresponding predicate has the color i) for the cell.

Definition at line 1188 of file fe_enriched.h.

◆ predicate_colors

template<int dim, int spacedim = dim>
std::vector<unsigned int> ColorEnriched::Helper< dim, spacedim >::predicate_colors
private

std::vector of colors (unsigned int) associated with each sub-domain. No two connected sub-domains (i.e. sub-domains that share a vertex) have the same color.

Definition at line 1195 of file fe_enriched.h.

◆ n_colors

template<int dim, int spacedim = dim>
unsigned int ColorEnriched::Helper< dim, spacedim >::n_colors
private

Total number of different colors in predicate_colors

Definition at line 1200 of file fe_enriched.h.

◆ cellwise_color_predicate_map

template<int dim, int spacedim = dim>
std::map<unsigned int, std::map<unsigned int, unsigned int> > ColorEnriched::Helper< dim, spacedim >::cellwise_color_predicate_map
private

A map of maps used to associate a cell with a map that in turn associates colors of active predicates in the cell with corresponding predicate ids.

Definition at line 1208 of file fe_enriched.h.

◆ fe_sets

template<int dim, int spacedim = dim>
std::vector<std::set<unsigned int> > ColorEnriched::Helper< dim, spacedim >::fe_sets
private

A vector of different possible color sets for a given set of predicates and hp::DoFHandler object

Definition at line 1214 of file fe_enriched.h.


The documentation for this struct was generated from the following files: